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Heart

...  we have mentioned before, the heart is made up of four chambers - two upper and two lower chambers. The upper right and left chambers are called the atria. The lower right and left chambers are the ventricles. The atria always contract at the same time, so do the ventricles creating the heart’s pumping action. Contracting the atria let the blood flow into the lower ventricles. Each  ...

Cardiac Muscle

...  of the heart is the sino-atrial node, which transmits the action potential to the atrioventricular node, which then branches out to the purkinje fibers. Because of the forceful activity of the left ventricles, you expect a more muscular layer in this site compared to the right ventricle. By knowing the histology of the heart, you can better appreciate the works of your cardiac muscle.  ...

Cerebrospinal Fluid

...  of the choroid plexus. The modified ependymal cells, blood vessels and the ventricular walls are responsible for the continuous secretion of the fluid. Once formed, it circulates from the lateral ventricles, third ventricle, aqueduct of Sylvius, to the fourth ventricle, foramina of the Magendie and Luschka and the subarachnoid space. To balance the normal volume, the venous sinuses in the  ...

Conduction System of the Heart

...  This process is done by the heart’s conduction system during the time it takes to make one heartbeat. The two atria of the heart contracts at the same time; and when they start to relax, the ventricles start contracting. This contraction phase is known as the systole, and the relaxation phase is called the diastole. The heart is responsible for pumping blood to the lungs and the rest of  ...

Meninges

...  to be vascular to support the nourishment of the brain cells, the spinal cord and other parts that surround it. The pia mater also works with the arachnoid to help build one of the components of the ventricles- the roofs. It also contributes to the formation of choroid plexus, and to the attachment of dura mater to the spinal  ...

Neurolgia

...  be seen in the central nervous system. Astrocytes - They aid the molecules and cells to pass by between the central nervous system, or CNS to the brain. Ependymal Cells - It provides the brain ventricles and spinal cord a lining. Ganglionic Gliocytes - It gives support to the cell bodies in the preipheral nervous system, or  ...

Spinal Cord

...  These horns are united across the middle part of the spinal cord by a gray matter known to be the gray commissure. This is where the central canal lies. The gray commissure is extended until the ventricles of the brain, with the cerebrospinal fluid protecting it. On the other hand, the columns of white matter in the spinal cord has tracts which ascend and descend for the travel of the nerve  ...

Ventricles Of The Brain

...  ventricles of the brain are attached to each other, together with the spinal cord- particularly the central canal. The two lateral ventricles are situated together with the cerebrum in the same hemisphere, and is just under the corpus collosum. The third ventricle is located in the diencephalon, specifically in the thalami. These three ventricles are connected through an opening called the  ...

Routes Of Circulation

...  arteries. They are also responsible for bringing the myocardium the needed blood supply by branching off. Atrioventricular sulcus, otherwise known as the depression between the right and left ventricles and the atrias, carry the coronary arteries which enclose or surround the diameter of the heart. From that zone, the left and right coronary arteries bring new and oxygenated blood to the  ...