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Parasympathetic Division
...  parasympathetic division is one of the divisions of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned with digestion, urination and defecation. It has a different effect from that of the sympathetic division because this division involves the body in a state of rest. Unlike the sympathetic, the parasympathetic decreases respiration and heart rate; hence, it conserves and stores energy instead of  ...

Dual Innervation
...  this system, the body will not function properly. How do dual innervations work and what is their significance in the body? Dual innervations These are innervations affected by two systems, the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve systems. They are both present in some organs because of the variety of functions that the organs have to perform. Both systems are anti-thesis to each other; their  ...

Sympathetic Division
...  and did not know whether to run away or confront it? Your breath quickens, your ears roar and your heartbeat increases. This is what is called the “fight or flight” response of the sympathetic division of the body to emergency situations. What is the sympathetic division? This is a division of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for preparing the body to fight or  ...

Conduction System of the Heart
...  to contract. The neurons that supply the nerves to the cardiac muscle hold several similarities to the neurons that innervate the skeletal muscle. These neurons can be greatly influenced by the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system. The components of the conduction system of the heart include: The Sinoatrial Node. This is the first part of the conduction system. It can be found  ...

Testes
...  are necessary for the proper functions of the testes. It is the testicular nerves which are able to innervate the testes with both of these requirements. Innervation is slightly assisted by the parasympathetic neurons. Sexually-mature testes will produce a much higher concentration of testosterone. It is this androgen which is also known as an anabolic steroid because it increases muscle growth  ...

Adrenergic Stimulation
...  stimulation is an activity in the body which is characterised by epinephrine release in the blood or the norepinephrine release occurring within the sympathetic nerve endings. This so-called body activity could have two effects: it could either enhance the body, or inhibit it from performing a certain task/performing in its normal state. The stimulation involves contraction or dilation  ...

Salivary Glands
...  ducts’ lumina is covered with cuboidal epithelial cells. The salivary glands are controlled by the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system. Viscous saliva is released by stimulating the sympathetic impulses. The watery saliva from the serous cells is triggered by the parasympathetic impulses. Salivating when thinking, smelling, tasting, or dreaming about food is stoked by a  ...

Small Intestine
...  digestive organ, in charge of the absorption of nutrients. The small intestine is innervated by the superior mesenteric plexus. Sensory fibers reach the small intestine through the postganglionic sympathetic fibers and the preganglionic parasympathetic fibers. Blood supply to the small intestine is provided by the celiac trunk and the inferior mesenteric artery, helped along by a direct route  ...

Tunics
...  plexus. This is where the most necessary nerve pathway in the gastrointestinal tract is conducted. Nerve fibers and the autonomic nervous system’s ganglion in the myenteric plexus supply sympathetic and parasympathetic innervaion to the gastrointestinal tract. The Serosa As the outermost tunic, the serosa is the gastrointestinal tract’s wall. This tunic protects all the actions  ...

Pancreas
...  each acinus contains one layer of epithelial acinar cells. Innervation to the pancreas is done by the branches from the celiac plexus. The glandular functional segment of the pancreas gets the parasympathetic innervation while the blood vessels receive the sympathetic innervation. The pancreas get blood supply from the splenic artery, a branch of the celiac artery. The pancreatoduodenal artery  ...


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