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Yellow Fever
...  The virus that causes yellow fever belongs to the Flaviviridae family, which also caused Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever. This virus is usually introduced to the human bloodstream through the saliva of mosquitoes as they bite through the human skin. After this, the virus transports to different parts of the body and reproduces itself in different body cells. It usually targets cells in  ...

Brain
...  by the mid brain. This half of the mind is taken into account to be the most important a part of the human brain. The hind-brain controls many of the involuntary actions like blood pressure, salivation and vomiting. The actions like strolling in a straight line, using a bicycle, picking up a pencil is possible because of a part of the hind brain called cerebellum. The hind brain consists  ...

Mouth
...  used to further crush and grind it into the smallest pieces possible. This process is called “chewing” or “mastication.”This process of chewing is not possible without the saliva that is produced by the salivatory glands on the tongue, which have the proper enzymes that can be used to chemically break down the food into something that is easily digestible by the  ...

Glandular Structure
...  Exocrine The widely-distributed glandular structure comes from the exocrine gland. The glands pour their secretion through a tube. You can find them in the skin, pancreas, mammary glands, and salivary glands. Their name and the function of their secretion depend on their location. If it is the pancreas, the secretions are called the pancreatic juices and they work in digesting the food  ...

Esophagus
...  esophagus is an organ that consists of a muscular tube where food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. Its function is very important in human digestion as it carries liquid, foods and even saliva from the mouth to the stomach. Once food and liquids reach the stomach, it then acts to start digesting then proceeds to pump the food and liquids to other intestines so that it is properly  ...

Parasympathetic Division
...  involved, and these are the cranial preganglionic innervation and the sacral preganglionic innervation. The preganglionic innervation involves the facial nerves like the nerves of the eyes, salivary and lacrimal. The sacral preganglionic innervation innervates the nerves in the bladder, lower portion of the colon, the rectum, and the reproductive organs. Protein Receptors Receptors  ...

Dual Innervation
...  caused by the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions that complement each other. The process of digestion demonstrates this perfectly. While the parasympathetic neurons initiate the production of salivary enzymes to start digestion of foodstuff in the mouth, the sympathetic neurons, in turn, transmit this message and the other digestive processes occur simultaneously. This action enhances the  ...

Cholinergic Stimulation
...  processes in the body. The action can lead to dilation of the blood vessels, bradycardia or slow heart rate, constriction of the lower respiratory tract and the secretion of more mucous, increased salivation, increased activity of the sweat glands and lacrimal gland, and the constriction of the pupils of the eye. Your physician will prescribe any of the drugs known to cause cholinergic  ...

Salivary Glands
...  production of the vital digestion material known as saliva is attributed to the small glands called the salivary glands. Also known as accessory digestive glands, the salivary glands are in charge of two functions. First, it breaks down the molecular structure of the food, thereby lending taste to it. And, it cleans the teeth and maintains the moisture of the mucous membranes inside the  ...


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