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Enlarged Prostate
...  hyperplasia (BPH) or benign prostatic hypertrophy is the increase in size of the prostate in middle-aged and elderly men. This process is characterized by hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells, causing the formation of big and fairly discrete nodules in the periurethral area of the prostate. When sufficiently large, the nodules compress the urethral canal to cause partial  ...

Blood Vessels
...  the heart. They are tough tube-like structures which have smooth lining on the inside. Each artery is composed of three different layers; namely, the outer tissue, muscular middle and inner layer of epithelial cells. The reason why the arteries are very strong on the outer and middle layers is to enable them to withstand the pressure of pumping blood. The smooth layer is such so that the path of  ...

Salivary Glands
...  quality as water, only with an enzyme for digestion. Mucous cells, the other type, produce secretions that are more viscous and thick. All salivary ducts’ lumina is covered with cuboidal epithelial cells. The salivary glands are controlled by the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system. Viscous saliva is released by stimulating the sympathetic impulses. The watery saliva from  ...

Small Intestine
...  the macroscopic folds of the mucosa that are found along the lumen in a finger-like fashion which are called the intestinal vilii, and the microscopic projections formed by the folds of the epithelial cell membrane known as the microvilli. The microvilli either appears blurred or brushing the sides of the columnar epithelium when it’s placed under a microscope. In fact, when the  ...

Tunics
...  mucosa is a lining that is situated along the lines of the lumen. It secretes a certain kind of mucous on the GI tract and is also capable of absorbing nutrients. This is formed by simple columnar epithelial cells, supported by connective tissues referred to as lamina propria. The lamina propria is home to lymph nodules - which help the body fight diseases and infections. Just outside this  ...

Parathyroid Glands
...  are sized 3 to 8 millimeters (in length), 2 to 5 millimeters (in width) and 1 ½ millimeters (in depth). When examined under the microscope, the parathyroid glands are made up of two kinds of epithelial cells. These cells are the principle cells and the oxyphil cells. The principle cells are concerned with producing parathyroid hormones. The oxyphil cells assist the principle cells and  ...

Thyroid Gland
...  that’s formed by follicular cells. The cells secrete two important thryoid hormones. Within the follicles, colloid (a protein-rich fluid) is found. The thyroid hormones are created by epithelial cells that are found in between follicles. These cells are known as parafollicular cells, and they secrete calcitonin and thyrocalcitonin. Innervation to the thyroid gland comes from the  ...


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