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Nerves
...  spinal cord through muscles that you control consciously, these are called voluntary or skeletal muscles. It also has receptors in the skin that detect information inside and around the body. The autonomic nervous system is the one responsible for connecting the brain stem and spinal cord with the internal organs. This part regulates the processes in our body that does not require any  ...

Parasympathetic Division
...  parasympathetic division is one of the divisions of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned with digestion, urination and defecation. It has a different effect from that of the sympathetic division because this division involves the body in a state of rest. Unlike the sympathetic, the parasympathetic decreases respiration and heart rate; hence, it conserves and stores energy instead of  ...

Neurotransmitters
...  and spinal cord and is rapidly metabolized and recycled. This catecholamine has an excitatory or inhibitory effect in the body. Dopamine This substance has an excitatory effect and is found in the autonomic nervous system or ANS. Oversecretion of this substance results to schizophrenia. All of these neurotransmitters have the purpose of transmitting neural reactions from the neurons to the  ...

Sympathetic Division
...  This is what is called the “fight or flight” response of the sympathetic division of the body to emergency situations. What is the sympathetic division? This is a division of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for preparing the body to fight or flight. The body does this by initiating the occurrence of a series of processes. These various processes help the body  ...

Abducens Nerve
...  nervous system is divided into two parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is further subdivided into the autonomic nervous system and the sensory-somatic nervous system. The sensory-somatic system consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves. The sixth pair among these 12 pairs is the abducens nerves. Anatomy  ...

Conduction System of the Heart
...  that supply the nerves to the cardiac muscle hold several similarities to the neurons that innervate the skeletal muscle. These neurons can be greatly influenced by the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system. The components of the conduction system of the heart include: The Sinoatrial Node. This is the first part of the conduction system. It can be found in the posterior wall of  ...

Salivary Glands
...  type, produce secretions that are more viscous and thick. All salivary ducts’ lumina is covered with cuboidal epithelial cells. The salivary glands are controlled by the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system. Viscous saliva is released by stimulating the sympathetic impulses. The watery saliva from the serous cells is triggered by the parasympathetic impulses. Salivating when  ...

Tunics
...  of digestive enzymes. Between the layers of the muscularis is the myenteric plexus. This is where the most necessary nerve pathway in the gastrointestinal tract is conducted. Nerve fibers and the autonomic nervous system’s ganglion in the myenteric plexus supply sympathetic and parasympathetic innervaion to the gastrointestinal tract. The Serosa As the outermost tunic, the serosa is the  ...

Pineal Gland
...  is 7 years old and continues to adulthood where it looks like a little fibrous tissue. The pineal gland is composed of specialized parenchymal cells and neuroglial cells. It gets innervated by the autonomic nervous system, and only that. Even if the pineal gland is located in the brain, it does not receive innervation from the brain. The superior cervical ganglion of the autonomic nervous  ...


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