Daunorrubicina is a type of anthracycline chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer, zccute leukemia and acute lymphatic leukemia.
It is also used to treat karposi’s sarcoma which is an AIDS related cancer of the mouth and skin which can spread to the remaining parts of the body. This medicament is a cytotoxic agent, which not only prevents cancer from reproducing but also kills the cancer cells. It is generally used as a part of a cancer treatment plan in combination with other medications.
Daunorrubicina is available to doctors as daunorubicin hydrochloride and daunorubicin citrate lipsome. The formula of the lipsome is structured in a way that the medicine is contained with lipid or fat molecules. The formula is capable of penetrating the body tissue and reaching cancer cells with ease as they are of smaller size and structure. It remains in the body longer than its citrate substitute and is also considered to be less harmful. The liposomal formula of Daunorrubicina is available as an injection under the brand name of daunoxome in United States of America.
This medicament is typically advised by doctors as one of the treatment plans for acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphatic leukemia. It has been also approved as treatment for the rare karposi’s sarcoma.
To prepare this medicine, a 4ml vial is filled with sterile water for injection and is slowly turned until the essential material has been dissolved completely in the sterile water. Each vial can produce 20mg of Daunorrubicina. The required dosage is drawn using an injection syringe already containing 10to 15ml of 0.9 percent sodium chloride solution. The solution is then injected into a swiftly flowing 5 percent of dextrose injection or 0.9 percent of sodium chloride solution. Daunorrubicina should not be administered to patients with the combination of other medicines especially heparin.
The dosage of the medicament depends on the patient’s age, body surface area, condition and medical history.
For the patients under the age of 60 suffering from acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, the advised dosage is 45mg per m2 per day of Daunorrubicina IV infusion for first three days of the first treatment and on first two days of the succeeding courses. Another medicament, cytosine arabinoside should be given to the patient in 100mg per m2 per day IV infusion dose for seven days of the first treatment and for 5 five of the succeeding treatments.
For patients above or of the age of 60, the dosage administered is generally 30mg per m2 per day IV infusion on the first three days the first treatment course and on the first two days of the rest of the treatment course. The dosage of arabinoside is similar to the dosage for patients below the age of 60.
The dosage administered to children also varies based on their condition, age, body surface area and medical history. For the children suffering from lymphocytic leukemia, a dosage of 25mg per m2 Daunorrubicina IV infusion and vincristine 1.5 mg per m2 should be administered every first day of the week with prednisone 40mg per m2 PO ever day. A complete reduction of cancer can be observed after four courses of treatment but if the reduction is partial then additional two courses can be given to push it to complete reduction. For the children who are below two years old and those whose body surface area is below 0.5 m2, dosages of the medicament should be measured with respect to their weight instead of body surface area.
Daunorrubicina Side Effects
The side effects of this medicine include nausea and vomiting and it can last for two days at least after the treatment. These are common side effects and are not alarming at all but decrease in body’s resistance to infections is the most feared one. If you develop fever higher than 38 degree Celsius or if you don’t feel very well then you should seek medical help immediately.
Bruising and bleeding, color variation of nails and urine, sensitiveness to sun, fatigue and change in taste are few common side effects of the medicament.
Daunorrubicina should be given to the patient only through the vein with other IV fluids and it should never be injected into the muscle tissue or under the skin. Do not inject the medicine in the spinal cavity as doing this may result in serious nerve damage. Inform of physician if you develop redness or pain, pruritus or swelling on or around the site of infection. In very rare cases Daunorrubicina may increase the risk of heart failure during or after months or years of completion of the treatment.
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