Bone cells are cells found in the bone. There are five basic types of bone cells found in the bone tissue. There are bone cells that are responsible for the reaction of the body to fracture and trauma and there are those that secrete the chemical compound that bones are made of. All bone cells found in our body have specific functions. All of them are necessary for the bones to develop and grow. They are also needed to retain the bones strength.
Below are the most basic types of bone cells:
- Osteogenic Cells are responsible for trauma response. They are found in the bone tissue, which contracts endosteum and periosteum. These cells are also responsible for the healing process to start once trauma is experienced. Osteogenic cells heal by calling on other cells, such as osteoblasts or bone forming cells and osteoclasts or bone destroying cells. When they all work together they repair the damage done to the bones.
- Osteoblasts are bone cells that secrete the basic compound needed to help in the process of bone repair, bone growth and, in some cases, bone regrowth.
- Osteocytes are mature osteoblasts but they have a different function altogether. Some osteoblasts turn into osteocytes during the process of bone formation. Osteocytes are found inside the bone. They also maintain metabolism and they participate in nutrient and waste exchange through the blood.
- Osteoclasts are the cells responsible for the breakdown of bone tissue. They also release calcium and are much larger compared to other bone cells. Osteoclasts release the enzyme that destroys the bone tissue when deemed necessary. These cells are an important part of bone growth and bone repair. It also helps in rebuilding the bone when it is damaged. Monocytes, a type of white blood cell, combine to create osteoclasts.
- Lining Cells are a type of bone cells that create the lining of the bones. These cells come from osteoblasts. The cell lining can be found in the surface of adult bones. Lining cells regulate calcium and phosphate in the bones. These minerals have to be regulated to maintain a healthy mineral content.
Human bones are made up of a spongy material that is protected by a hard outer surface. Soft bone tissue can be found inside the hard bone tissue. The hard bone tissue serves as a protective layer for the soft bone tissue.
Soft bone tissues are porous and have a lace like appearance. While soft bone tissues are considerably softer than compact bone tissue, their vascular activity is high, which gives them a boost of strength. The bone tissue is very strong but very light and does not add much weight in the structure of the body.
The hard bone tissue or compact bone tissue is very dense and is composed of a very accurate network of microscopic cylinders that travel along the bone. These cylinders are called osteons; they create a matrix of rings called lamellae. The lamellae create a barrier around the harvesian canal to protect it.